(Taking Up Your Cross Daily)
And He was saying to them all, “If anyone wishes to come after Me,
he must deny himself, and take up his cross daily and follow Me.”
– Luke 9:23
Taking Up Your Cross Daily. Again, I say welcome new brother or sister in Christ! You have been “born again” (“born of the Spirit”), and Christ now “abides in you,” and you “in Him.” You have been “redeemed” from death to life, “buried with Him through baptism” and “raised with Christ” to “new life”; your sins have been forgiven “as far as the east is from the west” through the blood of Christ on the cross. Amen!
But fully understand that your ultimate goal is not simply to be born again – it is eternal life with God and His Christ Jesus in heaven! You are just now starting your Christian journey, which will continue for the rest of your lifetime. This section of the book prepares you for that pilgrimage, so you do not “come short of” eternal life:
Much of the material in this chapter has been covered already, but it is summarized again here so you have it in one place. Like The Path to Eternal Life chapter provided a high-level map for the New Testament plan of salvation, this chapter provides a similar map for your Christian pilgrimage.
SALVATION IS A PROCESS, NOT A ONE-TIME EVENT
I first want to review the nature of salvation more fully to set a solid foundation on which to proceed. Eternal salvation doesn’t occur in an instant, nor is it a one-time event or prayer; it is a continually progressive process (called sanctification) that starts at the moment you are born again (initial salvation, forgiveness of sins) but continues throughout the life of a Christian as they walk with the Lord, and doesn’t complete until one receives their “crown of life” (final salvation) – which is awarded to you on the great Day of Judgment by Jesus. The term sanctified means to be set apart for the Lord, being made to conform more and more to the image of Christ. God is still “at work in you” and will be for the rest of your life. True Christianity is a way of life until death.
Being “born again” is just the first, but by far the most important, step on the road to eternal (final) salvation; said differently, being born again is a necessary but not sufficient requirement for eternal salvation. Scripture is clear that “obedience,” action (i.e., “good works,” “bearing fruit” for the Lord), and “persevering” in faith are all required to obtain eternal salvation. Eternal salvation consists of all of these elements:
- Being “born [again] of the Spirit”: you have already taken this step,
- Submission to the will of God through “obedience” to the “commandments” of Christ as given in the New Testament (not the Old Testament Mosaic Law): this is also called “dying to self” and “taking up your cross daily,” for it is no longer you that lives, but Christ in you. You are now seeking God’s “will be done,” not your own will,
- “Abounding in the work of the Lord” (“bearing fruit”): For if you do not act on your faith, it will neither justify you before God nor save you to eternal life. Genuine saving faith will naturally result in “good works” for the Lord. Those who only profess faith have what the Bible calls a “dead” faith, for “faith without works is dead,” and
- “Finishing the race”: “persevering” in faith unto death (remaining faithful)
You cannot omit any of those components and meet the Bible’s criteria for being saved to eternal life. Please know that this list isn’t something I made up – it is the truth of what is expressly stated in Scripture. Each of the above topics is covered in more detail in subsequent chapters.
Now you will hear many say they are “saved.” However, recognize that people mean different things when they say that. Some mean that they said the “sinner’s prayer” once and believe they are saved “by faith alone/only” (all the way to eternal life) regardless of how they live the rest of their life – in obedience to Christ or not. I have explained that both are false teachings. Wayne Jackson explains how the words “saved” and “salvation” are used in Scripture: 
And further on the nature of salvation: 
Furthermore, we don’t (can’t) reach a state of perfect salvation while still in our earthly, fleshly bodies. Wayne Jackson writes: 
PRESS ON TO MATURITY
As a new believer, you are an “infant in Christ,” a new baby Christian if you will, immature in the faith. You must continue to “grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ” and “press on to maturity” “like newborn babies, long for the pure milk of the word, so that by it you may grow in respect to salvation,” for you can still be “tricked” out of your “crown of life” by the “wolves,” “vipers,” and modern-day “Pharisees” who want to steal your crown by turning you out of the “straight and narrow path” to eternal life.
They will attempt to do so by deceiving you into following the “spirit of error” and the seemingly endless false teachings of man (yes, even after you are born again). And even further, beware that Scripture calls them “ravenous wolves” and “false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing,” meaning they APPEAR to be true Christians and true Christian churches (they are all dressed up, if you will, to look like Christians, and even use the name of Jesus or Jesus Christ in their church names), but, in fact, they are not adhering to New Testament Scripture, and many even deny the deity of Christ if you look at their statement of faith. They mix some Bible verses together into something that sounds very “biblical” on the surface, but it is not what Scripture teaches.
Also, know that these “wolves” will try every trick “under the sun” to try to turn you away from the truth of Scripture and towards “another gospel which is not another” (i.e., their false teachings). This is why you see false teachings identified all the way throughout this book, from start to finish, and there is an entire section of the book called Beware the Wolves that lists some of the false teachings that are absolutely rampant today and believed by the vast majority of American Christendom. Amazing!
I am trying to warn you about the “snares” (and “doctrines of demons”) that you will almost surely encounter. When starting out, a newly born-again Christian is extremely vulnerable to the forces of evil led by Satan and to the deceptions of man. I have explained that these false teachings are “snares” (traps, pitfalls) that are set up to try to stop you at each step along the way to eternal life, and they don’t stop even after you are born again. These “snares” are laid out in front of and all around you like a minefield or a maze that you have to navigate; their goal is to try to cause you to stumble and fall, to turn you out of the “straight and narrow” path to eternal life, or to cause you to quit the faith altogether and turn back to this world and its sinful fleshly ways. I’m trying to help you from “falling away” from Christ and back towards the world or be “tricked” out of your “crown of life”:
To not be “deceived,” you must “grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ” and “contend earnestly for the faith that was once for all time handed down to the saints,” and to do that, you must know the sum of the truth of Scripture. I strongly recommend reading The Pilgrim’s Progress by John Bunyan as soon as you can right after this book. It portrays the walk (pilgrimage) of “Christian” from the “City of Destruction” (this world) to that which is to come, the “Heavenly City” (The New Jerusalem, eternal life in heaven). While written as an allegory, the book is chock full of rock-solid biblical truth, and it is also free from the many false teachings that are common today. In particular, you will also note that the “once saved always saved” false teaching, which is of epidemic proportions today, had not infected Christian doctrine, teaching, and publications when the book was written. The book gives great insight into the “way” or “path” or “walk” of a Christian’s life. “Christian,” the main character in the book, runs across all manner of people (helpful and not so helpful), demons, worldly lures (snares), and false teachings by the “wolves” which try to trip him up, stop him from proceeding, turn him from the “straight and narrow” path to life or get him to quit and turn back towards things of the world. Scripture warns us to take great care “so that no one will take your crown [of life]”; yes, the Bible is clear that others will want to see you stumble and fall again!
You will also see that the esteemed writer of that day aligns with what I’m writing in this book also (or actually vice versa, given that I come after him), perhaps giving you some confidence that what I’m saying herein (on this matter, as well as others) is indeed truth and in accordance with Scripture. Below is a small snippet from The Pilgrim’s Progress which describes where Christian finally arrives at the gates of the heavenly city itself, New Jerusalem, which is our eternal destination (heavenly, not earthly), and he sees that “that there was a way to hell, even from the gate of heaven”: 
Yes, a Christian can lose his or her “crown of life” simply through ignorance of the Word of God and sheer neglect. If you fail to “press on to maturity,” you are at great risk of “falling away,” backsliding, going apostate, or quitting the faith – I know, for I fell away once. I was the “thorny soil,” where the Word was choked out by the cares and concerns of this world, and because I had not pressed on into maturity of faith, I didn’t even know that it was possible to “fall away” or realize that was happening to me at the time. That I am again walking with Christ now is only due to the unbelievable lovingkindness, mercy, grace, and patience of the Lord, who pursued me and drew me back again. I still don’t quite know why He did that, but I’ve learned my lesson. Perhaps it was so I could help others by having gone through the experience of falling away after having once started out, or maybe it was so I could have the opportunity to write this book to help others avoid the same mistakes I made. Regardless, I’m eternally grateful!
You don’t want to find yourself many years into your Christian walk and yet still need to be reminded of the very basics of the faith:
If you don’t press on studying and learning Scripture each and every day, you won’t know what Christ expects from those who call on His name, and you won’t be able to spot a false teaching when you encounter one. And further, if you don’t know what Scripture says about what Christ has commanded, how can you be obedient? If you don’t know His commandments, how can you do them? And so on…
We must not be ignorant of the complete plan of salvation as given to us by God in Scripture. The Bible does not condone ignorance (see Acts 17:22-32, Romans 4:15, Leviticus 5:17-18, 2 Peter 3:18, 2 Timothy 2:15). The chapters in this section of the book are, therefore, just as important as the prior chapters were on accepting Christ (i.e., being born again). We read:
I implore you, brother or sister in Christ, please do not be ignorant of the complete plan of salvation that Scripture actually teaches. We must approach God on His terms, not ours. We must seek and do His will, not ours. And we must “fight the good fight of faith” and “finish the [race] course”! The modern and liberal so-called “Christian” churches of today are not training up their members, or even their pastors, teachers, and elders, to know the complete plan of salvation. It seems to me that the Christian evangelical world spends 99% of its time, money, and effort in preaching on how one is to be born again and almost nothing thereafter on how to train you up properly in the way of a Christian. Wayne Jackson writes: 
MAKE OUR CALLING AND ELECTION SURE
Nexts, we are strongly and repeatedly exhorted not to take our eternal final salvation lightly or for granted:
- “Make your calling and election sure” (2 Peter 1:10 KJV),
- “Work out your salvation with fear and trembling” (Philippians 2:12),
- “Be all the more diligent to make certain about His calling and choosing you” (2 Peter 1:10),
- “Be diligent to be found by Him in peace, spotless and blameless,” i.e., when you meet Christ – which happens either at our death or His return, whichever comes first (2 Peter 3:14),
- “Test yourselves to see if you are in the faith; examine yourselves!” (2 Corinthians 13:5),
- “Press on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus” (Philippians 3:14),
- “Fight the good fight of faith; take hold of the eternal life to which you were called” (1 Timothy 6:12),
- Make sure you “will not be disqualified” (1 Corinthians 9:27),
- “Finish the course…keep the faith” (2 Timothy 4:7), for
- “In the future there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to me on that day [the Great Day of Judgment]” (2 Timothy 4:8)
These verses involve several different aspects, but the central theme is that we must do our utmost to be serious, attentive, and determined to make sure that we are always on the path to eternal salvation! The great Apostle Paul wrote on this very topic where he indicates that even he had not yet obtained it [final salvation, eternal life], despite all the things he had already done (including hearing the gospel directly from Jesus!):
Paul then further writes about not being “disqualified” (even after having started out):
And if Paul could have been disqualified, how much more you and I! This is why Scripture warns us to:
Matthew Henry writes on Philippians 2:12-13: 
As I have stressed, Christianity is a way of life unto death; it is not simply a one-time event or prayer that happens in an instant (i.e., the “sinner’s prayer”) and it’s all done with and over with for the rest of your life, regardless of what you choose to do or not do thereafter. I have explained to you that salvation (present tense verb in the Bible) means all of these: you have been saved, you are being saved, and you will be saved (in the future). Salvation is an ongoing activity throughout the life of a Christian. The life of a Christian involves all of these:
- Continued faithfulness,
- Continued repentance (and avoidance of deliberate, willful sin),
- Continued obedience (to the Word of God, and specifically to the commands of Christ),
- Continual service (“good works”),
- Continual reading and studying (eating) of the Word of God so that we “grow in the grace and knowledge” of the Lord,
- Continual prayer,
- Continual worship, and
- Continual thanksgiving
The Bible refers to this as walking in “The Way” of Jesus, for Christ is “the way, and the truth and the life.” You now live in (“abide in”) Christ, and He lives in (“abides in”) you. The way of a Christian only begins when one is born again, and the Christian is then called to “deny himself, and take up his cross daily and follow Me.”
I also recommend reading The Heavenly Footman by John Bunyan, so you can get another author’s perspective on the need to be extremely diligent about ensuring our eternal salvation – for we are not to casually stroll towards it, but run towards it with all attention and seriousness, for our eternal life is at stake. It must be noted that the Lord Jesus even condemned those who had just “lukewarm” faith:
OBEDIENCE (AND FAITH WITHOUT WORKS IS DEAD)
Additionally, Scripture is abundantly clear that it is not simply enough to profess Christ; you must also live for Him in obedience. Since many of the “commandments” of Christ involve taking action, you can’t be an obedient “child of God” without also doing “good works” (“bearing fruit”) for the Lord – “prove yourselves doers of the word, and not merely hearers who delude themselves,” for “faith without works is dead.” Works are evidence of your faith, and your actions (works) serve to prove your faith genuine – both before man and before God. Even further to the point, we are admonished to be found busy (not idle), always “abounding in the work of the Lord” until we die or He returns (whichever comes first).
Christianity is as much about action as it is about the profession of faith. For if you do not act on your faith, your faith will neither justify nor save you to eternal life; it will be what the Bible calls a “dead” faith – and how can a “dead” faith save you to “eternal life”? There are true believers, and there are “make believers” (the “hypocrites,” who profess and do not do). But “God is not mocked”; He will sort those out on the Day of Judgment. We are called to “be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord.” It is prudent here to recall the words of Jesus on this subject:
Only you can determine whether you are “rocky,” “thorny,” or “good” soil! Only you can determine if you will “press on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus” and be able to say: “I have fought the good fight, I have finished the course, I have kept the faith; in the future there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to me on that day; and not only to me, but also to all who have loved His appearing.” We must always strive to hear “well done, good and faithful servant.” To be a servant means to be obedient (to the commands of Christ) and to be an active worker in the “Kingdom of the Lord” (the vineyard). We are not called to idleness or negligence in attending to (keeping, or more accurately, not losing) our salvation.
FIGHT THE GOOD FIGHT OF FAITH
And finally, we must also “persevere” in our faith (remain faithful) until death. Scripture contains repeated warnings that one must “persevere” in faith until death and that one can “fall away” from, “depart” from, turn back, go “apostate,” “backslide,” or simply quit the faith, even after having once started out (i.e., being born again). Contrary to the extremely widespread and popular false dogma today that a Christian is “once saved always saved” no matter what (see the Beware the Wolves chapter, a.k.a. Calvinism “Perseverance of the Saints”), Scripture is abundantly clear that many will not persevere in faith but will instead “fall-away from the faith.” The “once saved always saved” false teaching is in clear contradiction with what is written in Scripture.
Scripture does inform us that the way of a Christian is not always easy. You may be severely tested at times; sadly, many of the saints that have come before us had to seal their faith and testimony in Christ with their own deaths in martyrdom for Christ. Jesus warns us about this:
In fact, the way of a Christian (“take up his [your] cross and follow Me [Jesus]”) has been one of extreme peril down throughout the centuries. Even today, in many parts of the world, a Christian’s life is marked by trial, tribulation, and even persecution unto death. Even in the more “enlightened” parts of the world, a Christian can still face mocking, scorn, ridicule, discrimination, and economic sanctions. If you want to get a fuller appreciation of the atrocities committed against Christians over the years, I recommend reading The Church History by Eusebius and Foxe’s Book of Martyrs (The Actes and Monuments) and The Church History by Eusebius. Doing so will give you a much greater understanding of the persecution that the Christians who have gone before us have endured. Living as a Christian in a fallen world takes courage, strength of character, endurance, and above all, complete trust in the Lord in all things at all times.
When you come to Christ, you are giving Him your life to do with as He pleases; you are now a “bondservant” of Christ, for He bought and paid for you with His blood, having “redeemed” (purchased) you from slavery to sin. Do you think it worthy of sacrificing everything of this world, even your own life, for your eternal soul? Many Christians have had to sacrifice everything, including fame, jobs, power, possessions, friends, family, fortunes, and even their lives for their faith. The apostle Paul writes:
Paul further writes that he had not yet obtained his Crown of Life, that he still presses on towards it, “counting all things to be loss” compared to what is found in Christ:
Yes, make no mistake, the way of a Christian is often filled with trials and tribulations here in this fallen world, for “through many tribulations we must enter the [future heavenly realm] kingdom of God,” and Jesus directly warns us that “you will be hated by all because of My name, but it is the one who has endured to the end who will be saved.” If our Lord Jesus was hated, you will also be hated by this world because of Him. But you must “stand firm” in your faith, persevering until death. While it is exceedingly and abundantly clear that Christ will never (ever) “fail you or forsake you,” it is equally clear from Scripture that you can decide to quit the faith and quit Him. Scripture tells us to “put on the full armor” of God, so you can fend off the attacks of the enemy (Satan and his forces of evil, including the men who choose to follow him) and also “stand firm” in the faith; this subject is covered more in the upcoming chapters on Persevering in Faith and The Armor of God. You will notice that many of the verses used in this chapter apply to those chapters as well.
But also know that you will be able to persevere in faith through trials and tribulations by the power and strength of Christ “living [abiding] in you.” You are not living on your own “will power” and strength any longer; you now “do all things through Him who strengthens me”:
So, therefore, let us now “press on to maturity,” “grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ,” “be diligent” about ensuring our final eternal salvation, “be obedient” to the commands of Christ, “always abounding in the work of the Lord,” “fight the good fight of faith,” and “finish the race”!
FALSE TEACHING(S) YOU WILL ENCOUNTER:
- Saying a “Sinner’s Prayer” saves you
- You are saved by “Faith Alone/Only”
- Once saved always saved
- Being born again is the only required step one has to take for eternal life (i.e., obedience, works, and perseverance are not required)
- Roman Catholicism masquerading as Christianity (man can obtain salvation through observing the institutes of religion, i.e., performing ceremonies, sacraments, etc.)
- Universalism (i.e., any name, or any religion, even one you make up, or even no belief at all, can save you to eternal life)
- Sabbath keeping/legalism (you must observe the “Sabbath” or OT Jewish laws, holidays, etc.)
Then Jesus said to His disciples, “If anyone wishes to come after Me, he must deny himself, and take up his cross and follow Me. For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it; but whoever loses his life for My sake will find it.” – Matthew 16:24-25
How blessed is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked,
Nor stand in the path of sinners,
Nor sit in the seat of scoffers!
But his delight is in the law of the Lord,
And in His law he meditates day and night.
He will be like a tree firmly planted by streams of water,
Which yields its fruit in its season
And its leaf does not wither;
And in whatever he does, he prospers. – Psalm 1:1-3
“If it is disagreeable in your sight to serve the Lord, choose for yourselves today whom you will serve: whether the gods which your fathers served which were beyond the River, or the gods of the Amorites in whose land you are living; but as for me and my house, we will serve the Lord.” – Joshua 24:15
We proclaim Him, admonishing every man and teaching every man with all wisdom, so that we may present every man complete in Christ. For this purpose also I labor, striving according to His power, which mightily works within me. – Colossians 1:28-29
But I am afraid that, as the serpent deceived Eve by his craftiness, your minds will be led astray from the simplicity and purity of devotion to Christ. – 2 Corinthians 11:3
“If you love Me, you will keep My commandments.” – John 14:15 [Note: This verse is often distorted by those who falsely claim we are still under the Ten Commandments of the Mosaic Law because the word “commandments” is used here. The word commandments here refers to the commands of Christ as given in the New Testament.]
What use is it, my brethren, if someone says he has faith but he has no works? Can that faith save him? If a brother or sister is without clothing and in need of daily food, and one of you says to them, “Go in peace, be warmed and be filled,” and yet you do not give them what is necessary for their body, what use is that? Even so faith, if it has no works, is dead, being by itself. – James 2:14-17
Therefore as you have received Christ Jesus the Lord, so walk in Him, having been firmly rooted and now being built up in Him and established in your faith, just as you were instructed, and overflowing with gratitude.
See to it that no one takes you captive through philosophy and empty deception, according to the tradition of men, according to the elementary principles of the world, rather than according to Christ. – Colossians 2:6-8
Therefore, being always of good courage, and knowing that while we are at home in the body we are absent from the Lord— or we walk by faith, not by sight— we are of good courage, I say, and prefer rather to be absent from the body and to be at home with the Lord. – 2 Corinthians 5:6-8
Blessed is a man who perseveres under trial; for once he has been approved, he will receive the crown of life which the Lord has promised to those who love Him. – James 1:12
“‘Do not fear what you are about to suffer. Behold, the devil is about to cast some of you into prison, so that you will be tested, and you will have tribulation for ten days. Be faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of life. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. He who overcomes will not be hurt by the second death.’” – Revelation 2:10-11
Be of sober spirit, be on the alert. Your adversary, the devil, prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour. But resist him, firm in your faith, knowing that the same experiences of suffering are being accomplished by your brethren who are in the world. – 1 Peter 5:8-9
Be on the alert, stand firm in the faith, act like men, be strong. Let all that you do be done in love. – 1 Corinthians 16:13-14
“But I do not consider my life of any account as dear to myself, so that I may finish my course and the ministry which I received from the Lord Jesus, to testify solemnly of the gospel of the grace of God.” – Acts 20:24
“I am coming quickly; hold fast what you have, so that no one will take your crown.” – Revelation 3:11
For as high as the heavens are above the earth,
So great is His lovingkindness toward those who fear Him. – Psalm 103:11
Trust in the Lord with all your heart
And do not lean on your own understanding.
In all your ways acknowledge Him,
And He will make your paths straight. – Proverbs 3:5-6
In the morning, O Lord, You will hear my voice;
In the morning I will order my prayer to You and eagerly watch. – Psalm 5:3
Rejoice always; pray without ceasing; in everything give thanks; for this is God’s will for you in Christ Jesus. – 1 Thessalonians 5:16-18
Therefore we do not lose heart, but though our outer man is decaying, yet our inner man is being renewed day by day. – 2 Corinthians 4:16
The Lord is my shepherd,
I shall not want.
He makes me lie down in green pastures;
He leads me beside quiet waters.
He restores my soul;
He guides me in the paths of righteousness
For His name’s sake. – Psalm 23:1-3
“He who loves his life loses it, and he who hates his life in this world will keep it to life eternal. If anyone serves Me, he must follow Me; and where I am, there My servant will be also; if anyone serves Me, the Father will honor him.” – John 12:25-26
Finally, be strong in the Lord and in the strength of His might. Put on the full armor of God, so that you will be able to stand firm against the schemes of the devil. For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the powers, against the world forces of this darkness, against the spiritual forces of wickedness in the heavenly places. Therefore, take up the full armor of God, so that you will be able to resist in the evil day, and having done everything, to stand firm. – Ephesians 6:10-13
The Lord’s lovingkindnesses indeed never cease,
For His compassions never fail.
They are new every morning;
Great is Your faithfulness. – Lamentations 3:22-23
“His master said to him, ‘Well done, good and faithful servant. You have been faithful over a little; I will set you over much. Enter into the joy of your master.’” – Matthew 25:23 (ESV)
For I am confident of this very thing, that He who began a good work in you will perfect it until the day of Christ Jesus. – Philippians 1:6
 Jackson, Wayne. “Does the Grace in Ephesians 2:8-9 Exclude Baptism?” ChristianCourier.com. Access date: November 8, 2018. https://www.christiancourier.com/articles/1483-does-the-grace-in-ephesians-2-8-9-exclude-baptism
 Jackson, Wayne. “The Word-tenses of Salvation.” ChristianCourier.com. Access date: November 8, 2018. https://www.christiancourier.com/articles/1344-word-tenses-of-salvation-the
 Thayer, J.J., Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, Edinburgh: T.&T. Clark, 1958
 Jackson, Wayne. “What Is the Morning Star of Revelation 2:28?” ChristianCourier.com. Access date: November 8, 2018. https://www.christiancourier.com/articles/1105-what-is-the-morning-star-of-revelation-2-28
 Bunyan, John. (1678/2018), The Pilgrim’s Progress, (London/Holy Spirit Prints).
 Jackson, Wayne. “My People Are Destroyed for a Lack of Knowledge.” ChristianCourier.com. Access date: June 1, 2019. https://www.christiancourier.com/articles/771-my-people-are-destroyed-for-a-lack-of-knowledge
 Henry, Matthew. Exposition of the Old and New Testaments, London. 1706-1710/1721.